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ASCII stands for American Standard Code for Information Interchange.  Pronounced "as-kee," the adoption of the ASCII character coding scheme was an important milestone in the history of the computing industry.

ASCII acronym
ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange)

Something that computer programmers take for granted today, ASCII codes were developed during the early 1960s as a standard that assigns numeric values to letters, numbers, punctuation marks, and other characters.  The uppercase letter "A," for instance, is represented by the number 65, while the lowercase letter "a" is represented by the number 97.  The number "0" is represented by the number 48, while the blank space character is represented by the number 32.  The first 32 numbers are reserved for non-printable control codes such as the null character (0), audible bell (07), backspace (08), horizontal tab (09), and form feed (12).

ascii-coded keyboard Before the development of ASCII, communication between different computers was difficult or impossible.  Each computer manufacturer used its own digital coding scheme for representing characters.  IBM, for example, used a 6-bit character coding scheme derived from the binary coded decimal (BCD) system of Hollerith-designed punch cards, while UNIVAC used a 6-bit variant of the US Army's FIELDATA coding system.  So in May, 1961, Bob Bemer of IBM requested that ANSI, the American National Standards Institute, develop a standard coding scheme to enable diverse computers to communicate with each other.  After lengthy debate, ASCII was published in 1963, shortly before the IBM System/360 computer was released.  In the interim, the IBM 360 development team had designed an extended BCD coding system (EBCDIC), and they unfortunately didn't have enough lead time to modify the operating system and peripherals for ASCII prior to the System/360's 1964 release.  Many years later, in 1981, IBM introduced their Personal Computer that used the ASCII coding standard, and ASCII has now been widely adopted by most computer manufacturers.  Today, most personal computers and their peripherals use ASCII characters.

Below, you will find a table listing the standard ASCII codes, as used by computer programmers in the United States of America.

US ASCII Character Codes
(000-063)
BinaryHexa-
Char-
acter
00000000 000 00 NUL
00000001 001 01 SOH
00000010 002 02 STX
00000011 003 03 ETX
00000100 004 04 EOT
00000101 005 05 ENQ
00000110 006 06 ACK
00000111 007 07 BEL
00001000 008 08 BS
00001001 009 09 HT
00001010 010 0A LF
00001011 011 0B VT
00001100 012 0C FF
00001101 013 0D CR
00001110 014 0E SO
00001111 015 0F SI
00010000 016 10 DLE
00010001 017 11 DC1
00010010 018 12 DC2
00010011 019 13 DC3
00010100 020 14 DC4
00010101 021 15 NAK
00010110 022 16 SYN
00010111 023 17 ETB
00011000 024 18 CAN
00011001 025 19 EM
00011010 026 1A SUB
00011011 027 1B ESC
00011100 028 1C FS
00011101 029 1D GS
00011110 030 1E RS
00011111 031 1F US
00100000 032 20 SP
00100001 033 21 !
00100010 034 22 "
00100011 035 23 #
00100100 036 24 $
00100101 037 25 %
00100110 038 26 &
00100111 039 27 '
00101000 040 28 (
00101001 041 29 )
00101010 042 2A *
00101011 043 2B +
00101100 044 2C ,
00101101 045 2D -
00101110 046 2E .
00101111 047 2F /
00110000 048 30 0
00110001 049 31 1
00110010 050 32 2
00110011 051 33 3
00110100 052 34 4
00110101 053 35 5
00110110 054 36 6
00110111 055 37 7
00111000 056 38 8
00111001 057 39 9
00111010 058 3A :
00111011 059 3B ;
00111100 060 3C <
00111101 061 3D =
00111110 062 3E >
00111111 063 3F ?
US ASCII Character Codes
(064-127)
BinaryHexa-
Char-
acter
01000000 064 40 @
01000001 065 41 A
01000010 066 42 B
01000011 067 43 C
01000100 068 44 D
01000101 069 45 E
01000110 070 46 F
01000111 071 47 G
01001000 072 48 H
01001001 073 49 I
01001010 074 4A J
01001011 075 4B K
01001100 076 4C L
01001101 077 4D M
01001110 078 4E N
01001111 079 4F O
01010000 080 50 P
01010001 081 51 Q
01010010 082 52 R
01010011 083 53 S
01010100 084 54 T
01010101 085 55 U
01010110 086 56 V
01010111 087 57 W
01011000 088 58 X
01011001 089 59 Y
01011010 090 5A Z
01011011 091 5B [
01011100 092 5C \
01011101 093 5D ]
01011110 094 5E ^
01011111 095 5F _
01100000 096 60 `
01100001 097 61 a
01100010 098 62 b
01100011 099 63 c
01100100 100 64 d
01100101 101 65 e
01100110 102 66 f
01100111 103 67 g
01101000 104 68 h
01101001 105 69 i
01101010 106 6A j
01101011 107 6B k
01101100 108 6C l
01101101 109 6D m
01101110 110 6E n
01101111 111 6F o
01110000 112 70 p
01110001 113 71 q
01110010 114 72 r
01110011 115 73 s
01110100 116 74 t
01110101 117 75 u
01110110 118 76 v
01110111 119 77 w
01111000 120 78 x
01111001 121 79 y
01111010 122 7A z
01111011 123 7B {
01111100 124 7C |
01111101 125 7D }
01111110 126 7E ~
01111111 127 7F DEL

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